India became the Second most Popular country of the World. Today, the Population of the India is near about 132 crore. It is lies inside the Asia Continent. But, how this type of information here, it’s common. This is because India has mega diversity nation today. India is one of the mega diversity countries of the World.
What is Bio – diversity ?
Bio – diversity is a short term of Biological Diversity. The term is derived from the word ‘Bios’ means ‘life’. And ‘Diversitis’ means ‘variety of life on earth’. It was first used by Wildlife Scientist. Also Conservationist Raymond F. Dasmann in 1968. Lay book “A Difference Kind of Country” advocating conservation.
When in 1980 , it came into the common usuage in science and environmental Policy. It is contracted from bio – diversity. It has been coined by Walter G. Rosen in 1995. While planning the National forum on biological diversity, Washington D. C 1986. The United Nations declared 22nd May, 2011. As International Day of Biological diversity and designated 2011 – 2020. As the United Nations decade on bio – diversity.
Mega diverse Nation.
Bio – diversity is disproportionately distributed among the various regions of World. It tense to rich in tropical zones. But, poor towards the poles. Mega diverse countries are designated to these countries of tropical region. It supports almost 50 – 80% of world total biota. They are rich in bio – diversity. There are total seventeen mega diverse countries in the World. These countries namely as :-
1.) India 10.) Peru
2.) Indonesia 11.) South Africa
3.) Brazil 12.) Philliphines
4.) China 13.) Papua New Genia
5.) Columbia 14.) U. S
6.) Australia 15.) Venezuela
7.) Mexico 16.) Equador
8.) Malayasia 17.) Democratic Republic of Congo
India has Mega diversity Nation.
India is one of the seventeenth mega diverse nations of World. It is being 2.4 % total land area of World and 8% global bio – diversity. According to Botanical Survey, there are 47,000 species of plants. According to Zoological Survey, there are 89,451 species of animals. India has take ten Bio – geographic zones. It has 103 National Parks, 537 Wildlife Santauries, 18 Bio – sphere reserved and 50 Tiger reserved.
India has sixteen major forests which are rich in both floral and faunal diversity. It also has 4 of the 34 identified hotspots of the World. Many crops like rice, sugarcane, mango arose in India and spread throughout the World. Because of all this, may be today India has mega diversity nation.
Rather than, another topics included in this topic.
Animal :- List of National Parks .
Animals :- List of Tiger reserved.
Animal :- Extinction of life on earth.
Hotspots of bio – diversity.
Some of the credit for declared India has mega diversity nation is goes to hotspots of bio – diversity. A small role can play these hotspots in mega diverse nations. In World, there are total 34 hotspots of bio – diversity in which the 4 hotspots located in India. These hotspots namely as Eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats, Indo – Burman regions and Sunda lands.
1.) Eastern Himalayas
It covers about 2 million sq. Km of tropical Asia as well as east of Indian sub – continents. The pechular plants species is sapria, Himalayana which is premitive, parasitic engio sperms. Some places in these places are exceptionally rich in bio – diversity.
2.) Western Ghats
It exceeds about 16,000 sq. Km along the western ghats of Indian Peninsula in Kerala, Karanataka and Tamil Nadu. It’s about 40% of total endemic plants species and 50% Lizards. South – Western ghats is called Malabar region because having major genetic estates.
3.) Indo – Burman Region
This region borders the Indian – political boundary and extends into the northern – eastern states of Aaruanchal Pradesh. It includes Myanmar, Thailand, Vednam, etc.
4.) Sunda Lands
Regions in South – East Asia that covers the western part of Indo – Malayan Archipelago. It includes Nicobar group of Islands. In India, it is represented by Nicobar islands.
Bio – Geographic Zones of India
It is small zones located in India. It constituting the total bio – geographical area. In India, there are total 10 bio – geographic zones. Bio – geographical zones has also play a small role for making India has mega diversity nation. These zones namely as Trans – Himalayan, Himalayan, India Desert, Semi – arid, Western Ghats, Deccan Plateau, Gangetic plain, Coastal Areas, North – East and Indian Islands.
1.) Trans – Himalayan zone
It constituting 5.6 % of the total geographical area. This zone includes the high altitude, Cold mountain areas of Ladakh and Himachal Pradesh.
2.) Himalayan zone
It constituting 6.4 % of total geographical area. This zone includes some of the highest peaks in world. It makes India one of the richest areas in terms of habitats and species.
3.) Indian Desert zone
It constituting 6.6 % of total geographical area. This zone includes the Thar and Kutch Desert and has large expanses of grasslands.
4.) Semi – arid zone
The lion, an endangered carnivore species, Caracal, Jackal and Wolf are some of the endangered species that includes in this area.
5.) Western Ghats
It constituting 4.0 % of total geographical area. It, s one of major tropical evergreen forest regions in India.
6.) Deccan Plateau
It constituting 42 % of total geographical area. This zone include semi – arid region that falls in rain shadow area of Western Ghats.
7.) Gangetic Plain
It constituting 10.8 % of total geographical area. This zone is flats alluvial region lying to North and South of Ganga River and it’s tributaries and foothills of Himalayas.
8.) Coastal Areas
Coastal India spans from the South – West Indian Coastline along the Arabian Sea from the Coastline of Gulf of Kutch.
9.) North – East zone
It constituting 5.2 % of total geographical area. This zone includes the transition zone between the Indian, Indo – Malayan and Indo – Chinese.
10.) Indian Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Island is important in Context of natural vegetation.