Environment Protection Act 1986 ( EPA)
Environment Protection Act 1986 is an act of the Parliament of India. In the wake of Bhopal Tragedy. The Government of India enacted the Environment protection Act of 1986 under Article 253 of the Constitution. This Act was presented by late Prime Minister “Rajiv Gandhi” on 23 May, 1986. It came into force on 19 November, 1986. The birth anniversary of our Late Prime Minister “Indira Gandhi”.
The purpose of this Act is to. The implement the decisions of the United Nations Conference. On the Human Environment as they relate to the protection and improvement of the human environment. The prevention of hazards to human beings, other living creatures, plants and property. To provide a framework for central government coordination. The activities of various central and state authorities. It established under previous laws, such as Water Act and Air Act.
Some terms related to Environment Protection Act 1986
1. Environment includes water, air and land. The inter – relationships that exist among and between them. Human beings, all other living organisms and property.
2. Environmental pollution means the presence of any solid, liquid or gaseous substance. Present in such concentration. As may be, or tend to be, injurious to environment
3. Hazardous substance means any substance or preparation. In which by its physio – chemical properties. Handling is liable to cause harm to human beings. Other living organisms, property or environment.
4. Handling means the manufacture, processing, treatment, package. Storage, use, collection, destruction or like of such substance.
The Environment Protection Act 1986 has given powers to the Central Government. To take measure to protect and improvement. While the state government coordinates the actions. The most important functions of Central Govt. under this Act are:
1. The standards of quality of air, water or soil. It is for various areas and purpose.
2. The maximum permissible limits of concentration of various environmental pollution for different areas.
3. The procedures and safeguards for the handling of hazardous substance in different areas.
4. The procedures and safeguards for the prevention of accidents. It may cause environmental pollution. They provide remedial measures for such accidents.
Under the Environment Protection Rules, 1986. The Central Government also made Hazardous Wastes Rules 1989. Under these rules it is the responsibility of the occupier. Such wastes are properly handled. Disposed off without any adverse effects. There are 18 Hazardous Waste categories recognized under this rule. There are guidelines for their proper handling, storage. Treatment, transport and disposal which should be strictly followed by the owner.
1. An amendment was made in 1994 in EPA. It is for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of various development projects. There are 29 types of projects listed under Schedule-I. The rule which require clearance from Central Govt. before establishing.
2. Any person aggrieved by an order or decision of Appellate Authority. Under section-31, made on or after the commencement National Green Tribunal Act, 2010. It may file and appeal to the NGT. In accordance with the provision of that Act.